Syntax Goals for Speech Therapy Part 3: Adverbial Clauses and Temporal/Causal Conjunctions – Dr. Karen Speech and Language (2023)

This is the third installment in Syntax Goals for Speech Therapy, where I’ll be giving you some sentence structure goals for speech therapy. In the first part, I shared a “base goal” for syntax that defines the “big idea” and ensures that you have a goal you can measure.

In the second article, I talked about sentences with passive verbs, one of the challenging sentence structures for students with language disorders (Zipoli, 2017).

I also shared some possible sentence structure goals for speech therapy and an activity for targeting syntax.

In this third article, I’m going to tell you another syntax goal you can add to your IEP goal bank that relates to another challenging sentence type.

So let’s get to that next sentence structure that’s difficult for student with language disorders:

Sentences that have adverbial clauses and temporal or causal conjunctions

I will admit that before I worked on this one, I had to look some of these things up.

I don’t just walk around all day thinking about adverbial clauses if ya know what I mean (even though I use them without batting an eye).

This is actually part of our problem…this stuff is so easy for us we don’t always know how to break it down for our students.

Before we get to writing the ideal sentence structure goal for speech therapy, let’s define some key terms.

Clauses are groups of words with a subject and a predicate. Some can stand alone as sentences, while others can’t.

An independent clause is a clause that can be a stand-alone sentence. For example, “The children ate breakfast,” or “Let’s go home.”

A subordinate, or dependent clause cannot stand alone. It must be attached to an independent clause. For example, “because it was morning,” or “after we go home.”

Adverbial clauses are clauses that contain adverbs. The adverb is often describing how something is done. For example, “if we go home soon”, or “because you moved slowly.”

An adverb is a word that describes a verb, adjectives, or another adverb. Examples include words like “randomly”, or “excitedly”; or from the previous example, “soon”, and “slowly.”

Temporal conjunctions are words that connect clauses or words within clauses (like the subject or verb of a sentence). They explain “when”. This includes words like “before”, “after”, or “while.”

Causal conjunctions also connect clauses or words, but they explain “why”. This includes words like “because”, “since”, or “therefore.”

Part of writing effective sentence structure goals for speech therapy is having a firm grasp on all of these terms so you can explain them to your students.

At first glance, it’s easy to see why this sentence structure might be difficult for students with language processing problems.

There’s a lot of different terms they need to process at once all within one sentence. If they misunderstand just one of those things, it can throw everything off.

The key for us defining what exactly should be in the sentence structure goals for speech therapy is understanding which part is tripping them up.

Let’s see if YOU can pick out each element in a couple of examples. Here’s an example of a sentence with an adverbial clause and a causal conjunction.

Since we got ready quickly, we had time to go out to breakfast.

(Video) Syntax intervention: Is there a scope and sequence?

See if you can pick out the following:

1.Causal conjunction

2.Subordinate/dependent clause

3.Adverbial clause

4.Independent clause

Ready for the answers?

In this sentence, the conjunction“since” explains why we were able to go out to breakfast.

This has a subject and a predicate, but can’t stand alone without the attached dependent clause. In my writing on this blog, I break this rule all the time and start sentences with conjunctions.

It’s become more acceptable in conversational speech to break this rule, or even during less formal written language (like blogs). But technically, it’s not syntactically correct (see, I just did it right there). It’s important our students can code switch and make that distinction.

The dependent clause is also an adverbial clause, because it describes how we got ready (quickly).

There’s a subject and a predicate, and this could function alone as a sentence. Even though the dependent clause isn’t stated in this sentence type, we need it because the subordinate clause can’t stand alone (unless you’re a rebellious blogger breaking the rules).

Just to make sure you have a clear picture of how to apply this to writing sentence structure goals for speech therapy, let’s do one more example, this time with a temporal conjunction. Here’s your example, following by the examples:

I passed my test after studying consistently all semester.

Before we add more sentence structure goals for speech therapy to that IEP goal bank, let’s think about why this type of sentence is so difficult.

Students with language processing issues may be reliant on “order of mention” (Erickson, B., 2016; Owens, 2006; Paul & Norbury, 2012; Westby, 2012).

Let’s look at our first example so I can show you what I mean:

“Since we got ready quickly, we had time to go out to breakfast.”

In this sentence, the cause (getting ready quickly) came before the result (having time to go out to breakfast).

(Video) The Ultimate Guide to Sentence Structure

We could rearrange these clauses and say:

“We had time to go out to breakfast since we got ready quickly.”

The meaning is the same, but the result comes before the cause. In either cause, we need to pay close attention to what is causing what.

Students who are overly reliant on order of mention will only notice the order of events. They may not fully understand the function of words like “since”, which is why I often write sentence structure goals for speech therapy that mention conjunctions directly.

Students may also not grasp the meaning behind the clauses that tells us which event would logically cause another; another consideration when making an IEP goal bank.

Relying on order of mention can be an even bigger problem when we have a sentence with a temporal conjunction.

Let’s go back to our temporal conjunction example:

“After studying consistently all semester, I passed my test.”

In this instance, the events are mentioned in chronological order. First I studied, then I passed my test. You can pay attention to the order of events and get the gist.

Now let’s switch it:

“I passed my test after studying consistently all semester.”

We need to pay attention to the word “after” andhold the information from the clauses in our working memory. Then we need to mentally flip the two events around so we understand that the studying came before the passing.

This is considerable harder, especially if you’re expecting to hear things in the order they happened. Another case for including conjunctions in sentence structure goals for speech therapy.

Another issue is that your students might not process modifiers like adverbs, so words like “consistently” could be difficult as well.

They might not be able to explain why I was able to pass my test, nor would they be able to explain how you would need to study in order to pass. They may not notice that the word “consistently” explains that I was studying often, and not doing it carelessly.

Because our students are struggling immensely, we have our work cut out for us.

(Did you see what I did there? Causal conjunction: because, adverb: immensely, adverbial clause: because our students are struggling immensely. I know, I need to get out more).

So let’s move on to writing these sentence structure goals for speech therapy.

Our base goal for targeting syntax was:

“Student will say/write sentences.”

One of the challenges for our students will be using adverbs, so we need to think about how we’d fit that in to sentence structure goals for speech therapy. I have never written an individual goal for adverbs. When I have worked on them, I usually addressed them under this goal:

“Student will use grade-level (or age-appropriate) vocabulary words in sentences with 80% accuracy.”

This goal could include target words from varying classes, so it allows me to target more than one word type. You could make it more specific and say something like:

(Video) “The ‘Genius’ of The Language” – Tony Woodbury

“Student will use grade level vocabulary words in sentences with correct grammar/syntax with 80% accuracy.”

Because we’ve included both the morphosyntactic and semantic component here, we could track progress on adverbial clauses with temporal/causal conjunctions under it.

This goal would meet the “good enough” criteria, but I’m not crazy about it. I think we could make it a little more focused.

When syntax is an issue, part of the problem is that students tend to overuse simple sentence forms (Zipoli, 2017). Because of that, we need to encourage them to use more compound and complex sentences.

One of the critical skills required for creating more sophisticated sentences is understanding and using conjunctions; so this is what I usually state in my sentence structure goals for speech therapy.

That might look like this:

“Student will say/write sentences with conjunctions on 4 out of 5 trials.”

We still use conjunctions in simple sentences (for example, the word “and” in this sentence: “Mom and dad went to the store.”), so this goal could cover conjunctions in simple, complex, and compound sentences.

If you wanted your goal to be more specific and clarify that you want a complex sentence, you could say any of the following:

“Student will say/write complex sentences with conjunctions on 4 out of 5 trials.”

“Student will say/write complex sentences with temporal/causal conjunctions on 4 out of 5 trials.”

“Student will say/write complex sentences with temporal/causal conjunctions and adverbial clauses on 4 out of 5 trials.”

As you can see, we can mix, match, and pick apart these skills to death. That’s why I recommend making it specific enough, but not so specific that you have too many goals.

In a way, these are a little redundant because we need a temporal or causal conjunction to make a complex sentence (so we could in theory just list one skill or the other skill, rather than both). But sometimes it’s nice to have it all written out to remind you why you’re working on the IEP goal in the first place.

With most of my students, I go with the first example (“Student will say/write complex sentences with conjunctions on 4 out of 5 trials.”) because in encompasses multiple sentence types, and sometimes my students need work on using conjunctions with simple sentences before we move to complex.

Leaving this room for flexibility covers my bases enough that I know what I should track, but also leaves it open for progress throughout the year.

Last but not least, are you ready for your ridiculously simple speech therapy strategy for syntax?

It’s called a “sentence starter” (Zipoli, 2017).

What you do is start a sentence for your student and have them finish it. Eventually, the hope is that you will be able to fade this prompt.

This is particularly effective for students with language processing issues because they tend to stick to simple sentences.

Starting the sentence for them gives them a structural cue that can help them come up with a more sophisticated sentence.

One way to do this is to use a conjunction as a sentence starter.

For example, if you wanted the student to tell you that they went to bed early because they were tired, you could say:

(Video) TMM – ProficiencyDifferences


And hope they say: “Because I was tired, I went to bed early.”

If they aren’t able to do this, you can try giving longer sentence starter.

Your starter could be the entire clause, like this:

“Because I was tired….”

The goal is to make your sentence starter shorter and shorter, until the students don’t need it anymore.

Since our students will have a difficult time with the order of presentation, you could pair the pictorial support strategy I talked about here by showing a picture that represents each clause like this:

(take a picture of my drawing for the sentence above).

The last challenge is to get your students to use an adverb.

There’s a chance that our students might use one if we don’t make an effort to facilitate it (for example they may say: “Because I was tired, I went to bed.”).

If that’s the case, we might need to have a target word we give our students beforehand. For the example above, we might tell the students that we’re going to help them make a sentence that we want them to use the word “early” in their sentence.

This goes without saying, but give your student a lot of examples and models before you ask them to try the task.

This brings us to the end of the third installment, so let’s recap those goals one more time (I’m narrowing it to the ones I’d recommend in most cases):

Don’t forget to check out Syntax Strategies for Speech Therapy Part 1 and Syntax Strategies for Speech Therapy Part 2: Using Passive Voice if you haven’t read them yet.

To get a complete guide on the most important syntactic skills and how to treat them, download this free guide for SLPs.

This free guide is called The Ultimate Guide to Sentence Structure.

Inside you’ll learn exactly how to focus your language therapy. Including:

  • The hidden culprit behind unexplained “processing problems” that’s often overlooked.
  • The deceptively simple way to write language goals; so you’re not spending hours on paperwork (goal bank included).
  • The 4 sentence types often behind comprehension and expression issues and why they’re so difficult.
  • An easy-to-implement “low-prep” strategy proven to boost sentence structure, comprehension, and written language (conjunctions flashcards included).


Erickson, B. (2017). Unraveling difficult sentences, part 2 of 4 series: The adverbial clause. Retrieved July 13, 2017, from

Owens, R. E. (2016). Language development: An introduction (9th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

Paul, R., & Norbury, C. F. (2012). Language disorders from infancy through adolescence: Listening, speaking, reading, writing, and communicating (4th Ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby.

Zipoli, R. P. (2017). Unraveling difficult sentences: Strategies to support reading comprehension, Intervention in School and Clinic 2017, 52, 218–227. doi: 10.1177/1053451216659465

Here are some example speech therapy goals for grammar and syntax: identify parts of speech or sentence parts within spoken or written sentences. complete sentence fill-in tasks using targeted parts of speech or sentence parts. arrange scrambled words into meaningful sentences.

How do you target a syntax SLP? › How to target syntax in speech therapy.

  1. That technique is sentence combining. …
  2. Present two related simple sentences. …
  3. Present/explain the appropriate conjunction or conjunctions to students. …
  4. Put the two sentences together. …
  5. References:

What are the IEP Goals for formulating sentences? ›

IEP Goals: Given a sentence related to a topic, STUDENT will independently/with prompts read each sentence to match the correct picture/word card in order to demonstrate sentence comprehension, with 80% accuracy, in 4 out of 5 opportunities, by MONTH, YEAR.

What are temporal and causal conjunctions? ›

Temporal conjunctions are words that connect clauses or words within clauses (like the subject or verb of a sentence). They explain “when”. This includes words like “before”, “after”, or “while.” Causal conjunctions also connect clauses or words, but they explain “why”.

What are the goals of syntax? ›

Generative syntax sets as its primary goal the provision of a rigorous characterization of the notion ‘possible human language. The essence of this ‘universalist’ goal is to distinguish as precisely as possible the class of grammatical processes that can occur in language from that which cannot.

What Is syntax in speech therapy? ›

Syntax—the rules that pertain to the ways in which words can be combined to form sentences in a language. Semantics—the meaning of words and combinations of words in a language. Pragmatics—the rules associated with the use of language in conversation and broader social situations.

What are examples of syntax? ›

Syntax is the order or arrangement of words and phrases to form proper sentences. The most basic syntax follows a subject + verb + direct object formula. That is, “Jillian hit the ball.” Syntax allows us to understand that we wouldn’t write, “Hit Jillian the ball.”

What is the best way to teach syntax? ›

Use sentences from text used for reading or read aloud. Include words recently encountered in phonics or spelling lessons. Include newly learned vocabulary terms. Introduce sentence scrambles that have just a few words — three or four at the most.

What Is syntax in part of speech? ›

Syntax in English sets forth a specific order for grammatical elements like subjects, verbs, direct and indirect objects, etc. For example, if a sentence has a verb, direct object, and subject, the proper order is subject → verb → direct object.

What is an IEP goal examples? ›

Some examples of possible IEP goal focus areas identified within the present levels are: Reading comprehension, fluency skills, communication, time-management, self-advocacy, self-regulation, organization, independent travel, interpersonal and social skills, college and career exploration, math skills, fine motor …

What are the 3 speech goals? ›

Every speech must have a main goal. The goal could be either to persuade, inform, inspire, or entertain the audience.

What are benchmarks for IEP goals? ›

Benchmarks indicate the interim steps a child will take to reach an annual goal. They also serve as a measurement gauge to monitor a child’s progress and determine if the child is making sufficient progress towards attaining an annual goal.

What is an example of temporal conjunction? ›

Examples. He came home after/before me. By the time the firefighters arrived, the building had already burnt down. I was asleep when she called me.

What is temporal conjunction and examples? ›

Temporal Conjunctions (time – when)

as, after, as soon as, at first, at once, before, finally, just, meanwhile, next, now, now that, since, then (this can be overused), until, when, whenever, while.

What are the 3 parts of conjunction? ›

Conjunctions are parts of speech that connect words, phrases, clauses, or sentences. There are three kinds of conjunctions: coordinating, paired, and subordinating.

What are the 4 types of syntax? › Syntax is the set of rules that helps readers and writers make sense of sentences….

At the same time, all sentences in English fall into four distinct types:

  • Simple sentences. …
  • Compound sentences. …
  • Complex sentences. …
  • Compound-complex sentences.

What are the three parts of syntax? ›

As outlined in Syntactic Structures (1957), it comprised three sections, or components: the phrase-structure component, the transformational component, and the morphophonemic component.

What are the three types of syntax? ›

  • Simple.
  • Compound.
  • Complex.
  • Compound-complex.

What are the different types of syntax? ›

Types of sentences and their syntax modes include simple sentences, compound sentences, complex sentences, and compound-complex sentences. Compound sentences are two simple sentences joined by a conjunction. Complex sentences have dependent clauses, and compound-complex sentences have both types included.

Why is syntax important speech therapy? ›

Difficulties with syntax can impact a child’s expressive language skills and can cause: Poor narrative skills. Incorrect word order causing misinterpretation. Omission of words in sentences.

What are syntax issues in speech? ›

A syntax error is a mistake in using a language that involves organizing words and phrases that don’t make sense. In short, syntax tells you how a sentence is worded and structured, which can easily be misconstrued.

What is a simple sentence syntax? ›

A simple sentence contains a subject and a verb, and it may also have an object and modifiers. However, it contains only one independent clause.

How do you explain syntax to a child? ›

Syntax is how we order the words in a sentence to produce a certain meaning. Grammar refers to using the correct word forms in sentences. Children with speech and language difficulties often: Use words in the wrong order (their sentences don’t make sense or are misleading).

What is the syntax of sentence structure? ›

Syntax is the study of sentence formation; it is a system of categories and rules that allow words to form sentences. Grammatical sentences: the native speakers of a language judge them as possible utterances.

What is syntax in a lesson plan examples? ›

Syntax: The set of conventions for organizing symbols, words, and phrases together into structures (e.g., sentences, formulas, staffs in music). For example, syntax refers to the structure of a sentence—its length, word order, grammar, arrangement of phrases, active or passive voice, etc.

What is an example of syntax in child development? ›

For example, a toddler will often say “goed” or “foots” before he says, “went” or “feet.” But this shows understanding of the rules; it’s another automatically learned phenomenon.

Are parts of speech part of syntax? ›

Syntax refers to word order and depends on lexical categories (parts of speech.) You probably learned that there are eight main parts of speech in grammar school. Linguistics takes a different approach to these categories and separates words into morphological and syntactic groups.

What is the syntax for adverb? ›

The term adverbials refers to adjuncts that modify verbs or other predicates (eventualities) or whole sentences (propositions); adverbs are those adverbials in the syntactic category Adverb; this category excludes DPs that function adverbially (e.g., yesterday), PPs such as on the beach or with a spoon, and CPs like …

What are the components of syntax? › Here are some elements of syntax:

  • Parts of a sentence: Subject, predicate, object, direct object.
  • Phrases: A group of words without a subject or predicate.
  • Clauses: A group of words with a subject and verb.
  • Sentence structure: The construction of simple, compound, complex, or compound-complex sentences.

What are 3 smart goals examples? ›

  • Specific: I want to read at least one book per month instead of watching TV.
  • Measurable: I’ve joined a book club where we set weekly reading goals.
  • Achievable: I enjoy reading and learning but have just gotten away from it lately.
  • Relevant: By reading, I’ll learn more about my industry.

How do you write IEP goals and objectives examples? ›

SMART IEP goals and objectives

Write down several statements about what you want your child to know and be able to do. Revise these statements into goals that are specific, measurable, use action words, are realistic, and time-limited. Break down each goal into a few measurable short-term steps.

What are the 3 most important parts of an IEP? ›

The three parts of an IEP goal: current level of performance, specific and measurable goal, and service delivery all need to support each other.

What are example speech therapy goals? ›

Examples of Speech Goals

The patient will increase speech intelligibility of 3-4 word phrases from less than 50% in known contexts with known listeners to 80% in unfamiliar contexts with unfamiliar listeners. consonants (i.e., /m/, /n/, /h/, and /w/) in words with 75% accuracy in 4/5 consecutive sessions.

What is 3 P’s in successful speech? ›

Three simple steps: Prepare, practice and present.

What are the three 3 speech of actions? ›

There are three types of acts in the speech acts, they are locutionary, illocutionary, and perlocutionary. Locutionary speech act is roughly equivalent to uttering certain utterance with certain sense and reference, which again is roughly equivalent to meaning in traditional sense (Austin, 1962: 108).

What are some examples of benchmarks? › Some of the most popular benchmarking methods include:

  • Peer benchmarking. …
  • Best practice benchmarking. …
  • SWOT analysis.
  • Process benchmarking. …
  • Performance benchmarking. …
  • Collaborative benchmarking. …
  • Call center. …
  • Technology.

What are some examples of behavioral goals? › Behavioral Goals in the Workplace

  • Be a Go-Getter. It goes without saying that a sense of direction is imperative if you are going to understand how to contribute to the organization. …
  • Stay Motivated. …
  • Stay Connected. …
  • Remain On Track. …
  • Demonstrate Your Worth. …
  • Stay for the Long Haul. …
  • Be a Team Player. …
  • Avoid Gossiping.

What’s the difference between a benchmark and a goal? ›

Short-term objectives are the intermediate knowledge, skills and/or behaviors that must be learned for the student to reach the annual goal. Benchmarks are the major milestones that the student will demonstrate that lead to the annual goal.

What are the 3 most common conjunctions? ›

There are three basic types of conjunctions: coordinating, subordinating, and correlative.

What are the 10 examples of conjunction words? ›

And, or, so, since, for, because, as, but, yet, still, while, as soon as, therefore, moreover, in case, though, although, even though, etc. are some examples of conjunctions.

What are the 7 main conjunctions? ›

English has seven coordinating conjunctions—for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so—which you can remember using the mnemonic FANBOYS: For indicates causation: “We left a day early, for the weather was not as clement as we had anticipated.”

What are the 8 types of conjunctions? ›

8 Types of Conjunctions and Examples Comparision Evidently Eqaully As with Likewise In the same way Similarly Like Of contrast Conclusion To conclude In conclusion Finally On the whole Summarizing Overall To sum up Despite this In comparison In contrast Even though illustration For example Such as For instance Such as …

What are the 5 conjunctions? ›

The most common coordinating conjunctions are for, and, nor, but, or, yet, and so; you can remember them by using the mnemonic device FANBOYS. I’d like pizza or a salad for lunch.

What are conjunctions in parts of speech? ›

A conjunction joins words, phrases, or clauses, and indicates the relationship between the elements joined. Coordinating conjunctions connect grammatically equal elements: and, but, or, nor, for, so, yet. Subordinating conjunctions connect clauses that are not equal: because, although, while, since, etc.

What is the difference between the 3 types of conjunctions? ›

Types of Conjunctions

Coordinating conjunctions– are single words that join similar words or phrases or elements. Subordinating conjunctions– also join similar words, phrases or elements but exist in pairs. Correlative conjunctions- They are actually adverbs that are used as conjunctions.

What are the 4 types of coordinating conjunctions? › What are the types of coordinating conjunctions?

  • Cumulative Coordinating Conjunction.
  • Alternative Coordinating Conjunction.
  • Adversative Coordinating Conjunction.
  • Illative Coordinating Conjunction.

What is a vocabulary goal for 4th grade? ›

Vocabulary Goal​: ● I can decode meaning by using prefixes, suffixes and root words. I can use context clues to find the meaning of words. I can look up words in the dictionary or glossary for meaning, syllables and pronunciation. I can complete analogies.

What is smart goal syntax? ›

The SMART in SMART goals stands for Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Relevant, and Time-Bound.

How do you teach syntax to elementary students? › How to Teach Syntax to Kids

  1. Model correct syntax. …
  2. Use sentence completion exercises to improve syntax. …
  3. Write words on cards and have the students arrange them to form complete simple sentences. …
  4. Develop basic skills. …
  5. Teach how sentences often use a noun-verb-direct object pattern. …
  6. Perform verb exercises.

What are the 4 goals for 4th grade? ›

The goals for fourth grade students include demonstrating increased responsibility for learning, managing time well, setting appropriate achievement goals, and beginning to understand their own learning styles.

What is an example of a vocabulary IEP goal? ›

Reading skill: Vocabulary

Sample IEP Goal: By the end of the school year, the student will use context clues and other strategies, such as consulting a dictionary, to help determine the meaning of unfamiliar words, with 80% accuracy in four out of five opportunities.

What are the 5 vocabulary strategies? › Effective vocabulary teaching has five key principles.

  • Focus on rich meanings, not just dictionary definitions. …
  • Emphasize the connections among words. …
  • Promote usage of the words. …
  • Review is important. …
  • Involve students in identifying some of the words to be studied.

What are 3 good smart goals? › 10 examples of SMART goals

  • Specific: I’d like to start training every day to run a marathon.
  • Measurable: I will use my Apple Watch to track my training progress as my mileage increases.
  • Attainable: I’ve already run a half-marathon this year, so I have a solid base-fitness level.

What are the 5 smart goals examples? ›

  • Studying. Simple Goal: I need to study more. …
  • Writing. Simple Goal: …
  • Reading More Books. Simple Goal: …
  • Mastering Emotions. Simple Goal: …
  • Exercising More. Simple Goal: …
  • Improving Your Diet. Simple Goal: …
  • Becoming More Productive. Simple Goal: …
  • Time Management. Simple Goal:

What are the key 3 things smart goals should include? ›

To make sure your goals are clear and reachable, each one should be: Specific (simple, sensible, significant). Measurable (meaningful, motivating). Achievable (agreed, attainable).

What is a good example of syntax? ›

Syntax is the order or arrangement of words and phrases to form proper sentences. The most basic syntax follows a subject + verb + direct object formula. That is, “Jillian hit the ball.” Syntax allows us to understand that we wouldn’t write, “Hit Jillian the ball.”

What are syntax examples? › Syntax is the grammatical structure of sentences. The format in which words and phrases are arranged to create sentences is called syntax….

Examples of Syntax in a Sentence:

  • The boy jumped happily.
  • The boy happily jumped.
  • Happily, the boy jumped.

What are the three elements of syntax? ›

Sequencing of subject, verb, and object

One basic description of a language’s syntax is the sequence in which the subject (S), verb (V), and object (O) usually appear in sentences. Over 85% of languages usually place the subject first, either in the sequence SVO or the sequence SOV.

What are the three aspects of syntax? ›

As outlined in Syntactic Structures (1957), it comprised three sections, or components: the phrase-structure component, the transformational component, and the morphophonemic component.

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